Antileukemic activity of sulfoxide nutraceutical allicin. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Antileukemic activity of sulfoxide nutraceutical allicin against THP-1 cells is associated with premature phosphatidylserine exposure in human erythrocytes.
Saudi J Biol Sci. 2020 Dec ;27(12):3376-3384. Epub 2020 Sep 8. PMID: 33304145
Samar A Sultan
Background: Allicin (ACN), a sulfoxide in freshly crushed garlic, is known for its diverse bioactive properties. Among the most notable effects of ACN is its antitumor activity against a wide array of cancer types. Thus, ACN may be a promising anticancer therapeutic. Nevertheless, chemotherapy-induced anemia is a major obstacle in cancer management with a prevalence of up to 70%. Although the pathophysiology behind it remains elusive, a number of medications known to cause anemia in patients have been shown to induce premature programmed cell death in red blood cells (RBCs) known as eryptosis. This study, thus, investigates the anticancer potential of ACN against THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells, its toxic effects on human RBCs, and delineate the underlying biochemical mechanisms.
Methods: Cytotoxicity was detected using the MTT assay, while hemoglobin leakage was used as a surrogate for hemolysis which was photometrically measured. Major eryptotic events were examined using flow cytometry with fluorescent probes. Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure was detected by Annexin-V-FITC, cytosolic calcium with Fluo4/AM, and reactive oxygen species with HDCFDA.
Results: Our results show that ACN induces hemolysis in a dose-dependent fashion, which is significantly abrogated in absence of extracellular calcium. Moreover, ACN stimulates PS exposure, intracellular calcium overload, and oxidative stress. Using small-molecule inhibitors, we demonstrate that the pro-eryptotic activity of ACN is ameliorated in presence of zVAD(OMe)-FMK, SB203580, and D4476.
Conclusion: ACN possesses both hemolytic and eryptotic properties mediated through elevated intracellular calcium levels, oxidative stress, caspase, p38 MAPK, and CK1α.