The antimammary tumor effects of ethanolic extract of propolis from Adamawa region (Cameroon) are by apoptosis via reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial pathway.
Environ Toxicol. 2021 Jan 4. Epub 2021 Jan 4. PMID: 33393727
Identification of novel natural treatment to combat cancer is a current need. This study was aimed at assessing the anticancer effects of ethanol-extracted Cameroonian propolis (EEP). The antitumor effect of EPP was evaluated in vitro by measuring; cell viability, cell cycle, cell death mechanism, cell migration/invasion, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm), caspase activity, and apoptosis-regulating proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL) in cell lines. In vivo, the effect of EEP against 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast tumorigenesis in rats was assessed. EEP was found to induce cytotoxicity against ER negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancercells by activating apoptosis through ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway. The extract equally triggered caspase-3 and caspase-9, increment of ROS level, disruption of ΔΨm and down-regulation of Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 proteins. Besides, EPP prevented migration and invasion activities by inhibiting MMP-2activity. At all doses it prevented breast tumor incidence (20% in EEP 150 mg/kg vs 70% in DMBA) as well as tumor burden. Tumor sections from EEP-treated rats showed middle proliferation of mammary ducts with weak inflammatory responses. In summary, Cameroonian propolis exhibited antimammary tumoreffects via the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis.