Antimicrobial activity of Phyllanthus amarus Schumach.&Thonn and inhibition of the NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus by Phyllanthin.
Microb Pathog. 2019 May ;130:242-246. Epub 2019 Mar 12. PMID: 30876871
Alessandra Maria Braga Ribeiro
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ethanoic extract of P. amarus (PAEE) and its compound Phyllanthin, as well as, investigate if these natural products could modulate the fluoroquinolone-resistance in S. aureus SA1199-B by way of overexpression of the NorA efflux pump. Microdilution tests were carried out to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the PAEE or Phyllanthin against several bacterial and yeast strains. To evaluate if PAEE or Phyllanthin were able to act as modulators of the fluoroquinolone-resistance, MICs for Norfloxacin and ethidium bromide were determined in the presence or absence of PAEE or Phyllanthin against S. aureus SA1199-B. PAEE showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative strains, meanwhile Phyllanthin was inactive against all strains tested. Addition of PAEE or Phyllanthin, to the growth media at sub-inhibitory concentrations enhanced the activity of the Norfloxacin as well as, Ethidium Bromide, against S. aureus SA1199-B. These results indicate that Phyllanthin is able to modulate the fluoroquinolone-resistance possibly by inhibition of NorA. This hypothesis was supported by in silico docking analysis which confirmed that Phyllantin is a NorA ligand. Thus, this compound could be used as a potentiating agent of the Norfloxacin activity in the treatment of infections caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant S. aureus.