Antimutagenic and antitumorigenic activities of nordihydroguaiaretic acid. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Antimutagenic and antitumorigenic activities of nordihydroguaiaretic acid.
Mutat Res. 1991 Nov ;261(3):153-62. PMID: 1719406
Z Y Wang
Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), which occurs in the resinous exudates of many plants is used as an antioxidant in fats and oils. In this study we show that NDGA inhibited the mutagenicity of methyl methanesulfonate, benzo[a]pyrene (BP), 2-aminofluorene, and aflatoxin B1 in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 or TA98 in the absence and presence of rat hepatic microsomal activation system. The addition of NDGA during and after nitrosation of methylurea (MU) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of mutagenicity induced by nitrosation products of MU. In a two-stage skin tumorigenesis protocol using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as the initiating agent followed by twice weekly applications of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as tumor promoter, pretreatment of animals with NDGA prior to DMBA application, afforded significant protection against skin tumorigenicity in female SENCAR mice. In additional studies, skin application of NDGA also inhibited the binding of topically applied [3H]BP and [3H]DMBA to epidermal DNA. When assessed in the anti-tumor promotion protocol, pretreatment of animals with NDGA before each application of TPA in DMBA-initiated mouse skin, resulted in 72% decrease in the total number of tumors when compared to non-NDGA pretreated animals. The possible mechanism(s) of the antimutagenic and anti-tumorigenic activities may be due to the multiple effects of NDGA as inhibitor of the carcinogen metabolism and DNA-adduct formation, scavenger of carcinogen free radicals, and as inhibitor of TPA-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity.