Antioxidant apigenin relieves age-related muscle atrophy. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Antioxidant Apigenin Relieves Age-Related Muscle Atrophy by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Hyperactive Mitophagy and Apoptosis in Skeletal Muscle of Mice.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2020 Aug 28. Epub 2020 Aug 28. PMID: 32857105
Skeletal muscle atrophy in the elderly causes loss in muscle mass and functions. Naturally-occurring antioxidant flavonoid apigenin is able to ameliorate obesity-and denervation-induced muscle atrophies, but its effects on age-related muscle atrophy remains unknown. We hypothesized that apigenin can relieve muscle atrophy in aged mice, probably through special effects on reactive oxygen species and enzymes with antioxidant functions. For the male mice of the study, apigenin showed significant dose-dependent effects in relieving aging-related muscle atrophy according to results of frailty index as indicator of frailty associated with ageing, grip strength and running distance. Apigenin also improved myofiber size and morphological features and increased mitochondria number and volume, as manifested by succinate dehydrogenase staining and transmission electron microscopy. Our tests also suggested that apigenin promoted activities of enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase for antioxidation and those for aerobic respiration such as mitochondrial respiratory enzyme complexes I, II and IV, increased ATP, and enhanced expression of genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α, mitochondrial transcription factor A, nuclear respiratory factor-1, and ATP5B involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. The data also suggested that apigenin inhibited Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19kD-interacting protein 3 and DNA fragmentation as indicators of mitophagy and apoptosis in aged mice with skeletal muscle atrophy. Together, the results suggest that apigenin relieves age-related skeletal muscle atrophy through reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting hyperactive autophagy and apoptosis.