Antioxidant properties of anthocyanins and their mechanism of action in atherosclerosis. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Antioxidant Properties of Anthocyanins and Their Mechanism of Action in Atherosclerosis.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1. PMID: 34087429
Atherosclerosis develops due to lipid accumulation in the arterial wall and sclerosis as result of increased hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation. However, improving antioxidant status through diet may prevent the progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is believed that polyphenol-rich plants contribute to the inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and chronic disease. Anthocyanins are flavonoid polyphenols with antioxidant properties that have been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. The consumption of anthocyanins increases total antioxidant capacity, antioxidant defense enzymes, and HDL antioxidant properties by several measures in preclinical and clinical populations. Anthocyanins appear to impart antioxidant actions via direct antioxidant properties, as well as indirectly via inducing intracellular Nrf2 activation and antioxidant gene expression. These actions counter oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling in cells present in atherosclerotic plaques, including macrophages and endothelial cells. Overall, anthocyanins may protect against atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease through their effects on cellular antioxidant status, oxidative stress, and inflammation; however, their underlying mechanisms of action appear to be complex and require further elucidation.