Antioxidative effects of silymarin on the reduction of liver complications of fingolimod in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: A clinical trial study.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2021 May 2:e22800. Epub 2021 May 2. PMID: 33934443
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease that affects the central nervous system and is characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and degenerative changes. Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) is the most common form of MS. Fingolimod (FTY720) is a once-daily disease-modifying agent approved to treat RRMS, and it binds to sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors. Milk thistle (silybum marianum; SM) is an herb generally used to protect the liver with antioxidant and antifibrotic effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of silymarin on reducing liver complications of FTY720 in patients with RRMS and decrease the oxidative stress that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Forty-eight patients with RRMS were divided into two groups using random assignment: the placebo and drug-treated groups. Participants of intervention and control groups took FTY720 with silymarin and placebo without silymarin per day for six months. Findings showed a significant reduction in the level of ALT and AST, reduction of main pathogenic factors in MS containing malondialdehyde, and also a significant rise in total antioxidant capacity, and total thiol groups in the serum of patients treated with silymarin as compared with the placebo group. Our outcomes propose the practical effects of silymarin in multiple sclerosis and reduction of hepatic side effects of fingolimod.