Antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of grape pomace and grape seed extracts on colorectal cancer cell lines.
Food Sci Nutr. 2019 Sep ;7(9):2948-2957. Epub 2019 Aug 2. PMID: 31572588
José M Pérez-Ortiz
Grape pomace is the source of bioactive compounds (anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and stilbenes) which exhibit antiproliferative actions on cell cultures. We have investigated the antitumoral effects of grape pomace and grape seed extracts on colon cancer cells (Caco-2, HT-29) and fibroblasts. Crude extracts prepared from white and red pomace, and grape seeds, reduced the viability and proliferation of Caco-2. HT-29 cells were resistant to these actions. Purified extracts were then prepared from the same sources and compared with the LDH test; again, all three extracts were active and purified extract from grape seed was the most potent and specific on Caco-2 cells. HT-29 cells were more sensitive to these purified extracts. The biological activity resided almost exclusively in the flavonol and flavan-3-ols subfractions, rather than the anthocyanin subfraction. Preliminary results on the mechanisms involved in these effects revealed downregulation of Myc gene expression in HT-29 and upregulation of Ptg2 in Caco-2 cells.