Antitumor effects of dietary black and brown rice brans in tumor-bearing mice: Relationship to composition.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012 Dec 23. Epub 2012 Dec 23. PMID: 23281142
Department of Biological Science, Ajou University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.
SCOPE: Feeding a diet supplemented with 10% (w/w) black and brown rice brans inhibited growth of transplanted tumors in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Black and brown rice brans from Oryza sativa LK1-3-6-12-1 and Chuchung cultivars each contained 21 compounds characterized by GC/MS. Mice fed diets with added rice brans for 2 weeks were intracutaneously inoculated with CT-26 mouse cancer cells and fed the same diet for two additional weeks. Tumor mass was 35 and 19% lower in the black and brown bran-fed groups, respectively. Tumor inhibition was associated with increases in cytolytic activity of splenic natural killer (NK) cells; partial restoration of nitric oxide production and phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages; increases in released tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 from macrophages; increases in infiltration of leukocyte into the tumor; and reduction in angiogenesis inside the tumor. Proangiogenic biomarkers vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) were also reduced in mRNA and protein expression. ELISA of tumor cells confirmed reduced expression of COX-2 and 5-LOX. Reduced COX-2 and 5-LOX expression downregulated vascular endothelial growth factor and inhibited neoangiogenesis inside the tumors. CONCLUSION: Induction of NK activity and macrophages and inhibition of angiogenesis seem tocontribute to tumor regression.