Apigenin and hesperidin augment the toxic effect of doxorubicin against HepG2 cells. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Apigenin and hesperidin augment the toxic effect of doxorubicin against HepG2 cells.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2019 May 3 ;20(1):22. Epub 2019 May 3. PMID: 31053173
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies, with an increasing incidence. Despite the fact that systematic chemotherapy with a doxorubicin provides only marginal improvements in survival of the HCC patients, the doxorubicin is being used in transarterial therapies or combined with the target drug - sorafenib. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of natural flavonoids on the cytotoxicity of the doxorubicin against human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2.
METHODS: The effect of apigenin and its glycosides - cosmosiin, rhoifolin; baicalein and its glycosides - baicalin as well as hesperetin and its glycosides - hesperidin on glycolytic genes expression of HepG2 cell line, morphology and cells' viability at the presence of doxorubicin have been tested. In an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of observed results, the fluorogenic probe for reactive oxygen species (ROS), the DNA oxidative damage, the lipid peroxidation and the double strand breaks were evaluated. To assess impact on the glycolysis pathway, the mRNA expression for a hexokinase 2 (HK2) and a lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) enzymes were measured. The results were analysed statistically with the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc multiple comparisons.
RESULTS: The apigenin and the hesperidin revealed the strongest effect on the toxicity of doxorubicin. Both flavonoids simultaneously changed the expression of the glycolytic pathway genes - HK2 and LDHA, which play a key role in the Warburg effect. Although separate treatment with doxorubicin, apigenin and hesperidin led to a significant oxidative DNA damage and double strand breaks, simultaneous administration of doxorubicin and apigenin or hesperidin abolished these damage with the simultaneous increase in the doxorubicin toxicity.
CONCLUSION: The obtained results indicate the existence of a very effective cytotoxic mechanism in the HepG2 cells of the combined effect of doxorubicin and apigenin (or hesperidin), not related to the oxidative stress. To explain this synergy mechanism, further research is needed, The observed intensification of the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin by this flavonoids may be a promising direction of the research on the therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma, especially in a chemoembolization.