Apigenin as Tumor Suppressor in Cancers: Biotherapeutic Activity, Nanodelivery, and Mechanisms With Emphasis on Pancreatic Cancer.
Front Chem. 2020 ;8:829. Epub 2020 Oct 15. PMID: 33195038
Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. Due to its propensity for early local and distant spread, affected patients possess extremely poor prognosis. Currently applied treatments are not effective enough to eradicate all cancer cells, and minimize their migration. Besides, these treatments are associated with adverse effects on normal cells and organs. These therapies are not able to increase the overall survival rate of patients; hence, finding novel adjuvants or alternatives is so essential. Up to now, medicinal herbs were utilized for therapeutic goals. Herbal-based medicine, as traditional biotherapeutics, were employed for cancer treatment. Of them, apigenin, as a bioactive flavonoid that possesses numerous biological properties (e.g., anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects), has shown substantial anticancer activity. It seems that apigenin is capable of suppressing the proliferation of cancer cellsthe induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Besides, apigenin inhibits metastasis via down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases and the Akt signaling pathway. In pancreatic cancer cells, apigenin sensitizes cells in chemotherapy, and affects molecular pathways such as the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1). Herein, the biotherapeutic activity of apigenin and its mechanisms toward cancer cells are presented in the current review to shed some light on anti-tumor activity of apigenin in different cancers, with an emphasis on pancreatic cancer.