Apigetrin induces extrinsic apoptosis, autophagy and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest through PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in AGS human gastric cancer cell.
J Nutr Biochem. 2020 Sep ;83:108427. Epub 2020 May 21. PMID: 32559585
Seong Min Kim
Apigetrin is a flavonoid glycoside phytonutrient derived from fruits and vegetables that is well known for a variety of biological activities such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the current study, we determined the effect of apigetrin on AGS gastric cancer cell. Apigetrin reduced cancer cell proliferation and induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest by regulating cyclin B1, cdc25c and cdk1 protein expression in AGS cell. Apigetrin treatment caused apoptotic cell death in AGS cells, characterized by the accumulation of apoptosis portion, cleavage of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Apigetrin-treated cells increased the expression of extrinsic apoptosis pathway proteins and mRNA. However, intrinsic apoptosis pathway related proteins were not altered. In addition, AGS cells treated with apigetrin increased autophagic cell death, featured by the formation of autophagic vacuole and acidic vesicular organelles. Autophagy marker proteins, such as LC3B-II and beclin-1, were increased, and p62, an autophagy flux marker protein, was also increased by endoplasmic reticulum stress. Also, the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway proteins and its downstream targets in apigetrin-treated AGS cells was identified to be decreased. Taken together, these data suggest that apigetrin-treated AGS cells induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, extrinsic apoptosis and autophagic cell death through PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, which can lead to the inhibition of gastric cancer development. Thus, our findings strongly indicate that apigetrin is a basic natural derived compound that could be used as a nutrient source with potential anticancer activities against gastric cancer.