Apigetrin treatment attenuates LPS-induced acute otitis media though suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019 Jan ;109:1978-1987. Epub 2018 Nov 26. PMID: 30551453
The natural course of otitis media in children is acute and self-limiting. Nevertheless, about 10-20% children could experience recurrent or persistent otitis media. Thus, finding effective candidate to prevent acute otitis media is urgently required. In our study, mouse acute otitis media model was constructed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection into the middle ear of mice via the tympanic membrane. Apigetrin (APT) is a flavonoid isolated from various herbal medicines, possessing anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative bioactivities. However, if APT could attenuate acute otitis media in LPS-induced animal models, little is to be known. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining suggested that APT treatment reduced LPS-induced higher mucosa thickness. LPS-triggered inflammatory response was also inhibited by APT, as evidenced by the down-regulated neutrophils and macrophages. Additionally, the reduced inflammatory factors, including interleukin-1β (IL-lβ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were observed in APT-treated mice with acute otitis media. The process was associated with the inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, which was proved by theblockage of TLR4, MyD88, p-IKKα, p-IκBα, and p-NF-κB using western blot analysis. Moreover, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by LPS was also reduced by APT through promoting anti-oxidants, involving superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NADP(H) quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expressions. In contrast, high levels of MDA and kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap 1) in LPS-treated mice were down-regulated by APT, which might be associated with the inactivation of NF-κB. In vitro, APT exhibited anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects with little cytotoxicity in LPS-stimulated cells. Together, the data above indicated that APT could ameliorate acute otitis media through inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress.