Comprehensive investigations for a potential natural prophylaxis-A cellular and murine model for apple cider vinegar against hydrogen peroxide and scopolamine induced oxidative stress.
Drug Dev Res. 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28. PMID: 34184291
Oxidative stress is the critical marker of neurological complications such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Apple cider vinegar (ACV) is known to have health benefits due to its antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and high antioxidant properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that regular consumption of ACV would protect against AD-like neurological diseases via inhibition of oxidative stress. Authors have compared the efficacy of ACV with that of Chrysin and Rivastigmine in cellular and animal studies. In the cellular study, oxidative stress was induced in Neuro2A cells (1 × 10) via HO(50 μM) treatment. Subsequently, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was performed, and cell viability, SOD, GSH, lipid peroxidation (MDA) levels were measured. Similarly, in the animal study, oxidative stress was introduced in Swiss albino mice (10-11 weeks old, 20-25 g, n = 30) via scopolamine (1 mg/kg). Subsequently, histopathological experiments were performed; cognitive ability, AChE activity, and SOD, GSH, and MDA levels were measured. The in vitro results indicated that ACV (2 μM) provided better protection than Chrysin and Rivstigmine in cell viability. ACV has also performedbetter in restoring the antioxidants markers (SOD, GSH levels) and reducing MDA and AChE levels. In the in vivo study, test compounds (ACV, Chrysin, and Rivastigmine) improved cognitive impairment, increased the SOD and GSH level, reduced the MDA level and AChE activity, and protected the cortex-hippocampal neurons from degeneration. Here also, ACV (0.7%) showed better neuroprotection than the other two compounds. Therefore, these results supported our hypothesis that moderate consumption of ACV might prove to be beneficial prophylaxis against AD-like neurological diseases.