Apple Peel Flavonoid Fraction 4 Suppresses Breast Cancer Cell Growth by Cytostatic and Cytotoxic Mechanisms.
Molecules. 2019 Sep 13 ;24(18). Epub 2019 Sep 13. PMID: 31540221
Many dietary flavonoids possess anti-cancer activities. Here, the effect of apple peel flavonoid fraction 4 (AF4) on the growth of triple-negative (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468), estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7), and HER2-positive (SKBR3) breast cancer cells was determined and compared with the effect of AF4 on normal mammary epithelial cells and dermal fibroblasts. AF4 inhibited breast cancer cell growth in monolayer cultures, as well as the growth of MCF-7 spheroids, without substantially affecting the viability of non-malignant cells. A sub-cytotoxic concentration of AF4 suppressed the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells by inhibiting passage through the G/Gphase of the cell cycle. AF4-treated MDA-MB-231 cells also exhibited reduced in vitro migration and invasion, and decreased Akt (protein kinase B) signaling. Higher concentrations of AF4 were selectively cytotoxic for MDA-MB-231 cells. AF4 cytotoxicity was associated with the intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Importantly, intratumoral administration of AF4 suppressed the growth of MDA-MB-231 xenografts in non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) female mice. The selective cytotoxicity of AF4 for breast cancer cells, combined with the capacity of sub-cytotoxic AF4 to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion suggests that flavonoid-rich AF4 (and its constituents) has potential as a natural therapeutic agent for breast cancer treatment.