Apple polyphenol relieves hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Apple polyphenol relieves hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension via pulmonary endothelium protection and smooth muscle relaxation: In vivo and in vitro studies.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Nov ;107:937-944. Epub 2018 Aug 23. PMID: 30257406
AIM: This study aims to test the effect of apple polyphenol (APP) on hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and explore its possible underlying mechanisms.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats were treated with control, APP, hypoxia (8 h/d), hypoxia + APP. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and pulmonary vessel resistance (PVR) were examined. Phenylephrine (PE)-pretreated pulmonary vessel rings were prepared for observation of APP administration. eNOS, sGC inhibitors (L-NAME, MB), Cachannel blockers (NiCl, Calhex231), Kchannel blockers (4-AP, 5-HD, TEA, BaCl) were applied to pulmonary vessel rings and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC). Flow cytometry analysis and CCK-8 assay were applied to detect apoptosis of pulmonary artery endothelium cell (PAEC). Caspase-3, NO, eNOS, iNOS were detected in PAEC. APP reversed mPAP and PVR elevation in vivo. Contraction of pulmonary vessel rings with/without endothelium induced by hypoxia were inhibited by APP. APP effect was hindered by L-NAME or MB, and could be reduced by Kchannel blockers. Further, APP was found to decrease cytosolic Cain PASMC and protect PAEC from apoptosis. In PAEC, Caspase-3, iNOS were decreased and NO, eNOS were increased after APP administration.
CONCLUSIONS: APP reverses pulmonary vasoconstriction through enzyme expression and cation channel activities, thus has effects of PASMC relaxation and PAEC protection.