Apple polyphenols extract (APE) improves colon damage in a rat model of colitis. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Apple polyphenols extract (APE) improves colon damage in a rat model of colitis.
Dig Liver Dis. 2012 Feb 28. Epub 2012 Feb 28. PMID: 22381211
Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Federico II University of Naples, Italy; Institute of Protein Biochemistry, CNR, Naples, Italy.
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Searching for alternative therapies that are effective, safe and less expensive of those currently used for ulcerative colitis, we investigated the efficacy of a polyphenol extract from apple in rat colitis. METHODS: Rats with trinitrobenzensulphonic acid-induced colitis were treated daily with rectal administration of apple polyphenols 10(-4)M for 14 days. COX-2, TNF-α, tissue transglutaminase and calpain in colon mucosa samples were assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. To ascertain the role of tissue transglutaminase in mucosal healing, wounded rat fibroblasts were incubated with cystamine (a tissue transglutaminase activity inhibitor). RESULTS: Colitis was associated with increased COX-2, TNF-α, calpain, and tissue transglutaminase mRNA. The protein expression of COX-2, TNF-α and calpain was increased whilst tissue transglutaminase was decreased. Apple extract treatment reduced the severity of colitis(p<0.05) and restored all the considered biomarkers at the baseline level. Apple polyphenols reduced the degradation of tissue transglutaminase protein occurring through calpain action. Apple polyphenols-treated wounded fibroblast recovered within 24h showing intense immunoreactivity for tissue transglutaminase. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of apple extract is mediated by its effects on COX-2 and TNF-α. The unbalance between calpain and tissue transglutaminase may play a role in colonic damage and future therapeutic interventions in ulcerative colitis can target this mechanisms.