Arctigenin Inhibits Glioblastoma Proliferation through the AKT/mTOR Pathway and Induces Autophagy.
Biomed Res Int. 2020 ;2020:3542613. Epub 2020 Sep 15. PMID: 33015162
Purpose: Arctigenin (ARG) is a natural lignan compound extracted from Arctium lappa and has displayed anticancer function and therapeutic effect in a variety of cancers. Arctigenin is mainly from Arctium lappa extract. It has been shown to induce autophagy in various cancers. However, as for whether arctigenin induces autophagy in gliomas or not, the specific mechanism is still worth exploring.
Methods: Using CCK8, the monoclonal experiment was made to detect the proliferation ability. The scratch experiment and the transwell experiment were applied to the migration and invasion ability. PI/RNase and FITC-conjugated anti-annexin V were used to detect the cell cycle and apoptosis. Western blotting was used to determine the specified protein level, and constructed LC3B-GFP plasmid was used for analysis of autophagy.
Results: Our research showed that ARG inhibited the growth and proliferation and invasion and migration of glioma cells in a dose-dependent manner (U87MG and T98G) and arrested the cell cycle and induced apoptosis. Interestingly, ARG induced autophagy in a dose-dependent manner. We applied Western blotting to measure the increase in the key autophagy protein LC3B, as well as some other autophagy-related proteins (increase in Beclin-1 and decrease in P62). In order to further explore the mechanism that ARG passed initiating autophagy to inhibit cell growth, we further found by Western blotting that AKT and mTOR phosphorylation proteins (P-AKT, P-mTOR) were reduced after ARG treatment, and we used AKT agonists to rescue, and the phosphorylated proteins of AKT and mTOR increased, and we found that the autophagy-related proteins were also reversed. And interestingly, the protein of apoptosis was also reversed along with autophagy.
Conclusions: We thought ARG inhibited the proliferation of glioma cells by inducing autophagy and apoptosis through the AKT/mTOR pathway.