Arctiin is a pharmacological inhibitor of STAT3 phosphorylation at tyrosine 705 residue and potentiates bortezomib-induced apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects in human multiple myeloma cells.
Phytomedicine. 2019 Mar 1 ;55:282-292. Epub 2018 Aug 11. PMID: 30668440
Jong Hyun Lee
BACKGROUND: Arctiin is a main component from the fruits of Arctium lappa L., that can be prescribed for cold or flu in East Asian countries; it has also been found to exert chemopreventive actions against various tumor cells.
HYPOTHESIS: In view of this evidence, we examined arctiin for its ability to trigger apoptosis and inhibit the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in human multiple myeloma (MM) cells.
METHODS: We evaluated the effect of arctiin on STAT3 signaling cascades and its regulated functional responses in MM cells.
RESULTS: Arctiin effectively blocked the constitutive activation of STAT3 phosphorylation in the residue of tyrosine 705. Arctiin also abrogated the constitutive activation of Src phosphorylation and Janus-activated kinases (JAKs) 1/2. Furthermore, it was found that arctiin treatment clearly enhanced the mRNA and protein levels of protein tyrosine phosphataseε (PTPε), and the silencing of PTPε caused a reversal of the arctiin-induced PTPε expression and the blockadge of STAT3 phosphorylation. Interestingly, arctiin could not repress IL-6-induced STAT3 activation in serum-starved U266 cells and when arctiin was incubated with a complete culture medium in RPMI 8226 and MM.1S cells. Arctiin suppressed cell proliferation, accumulated cells in the G2/M cell-cycle phase, and induced apoptosis within U266 cells, although the knockdown of PTPε prevented PARP cleavage and caspase-3 activation induced by the arctiin. In addition, arctiin exerted cytotoxicity in MM cells, but did not do so in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Arctiin down-modulated diverse oncogenic gene products regulated by STAT3, although the induction of apoptosis by arctiin was abrogated upon transfection with pMXs-STAT3C in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. Arctiin also potentiated bortezomib-induced antitumor effects in U266 cells.
CONCLUSION: On the whole, our results indicate that arctiin is a potentially new inhibitor of constitutive STAT3 activation through the induction of PTPε in MM, cells and therefore has great value in treating various tumors sheltering constitutively activated STAT3.