Artemisia extracts were mucoprotective by attenuating stress related mucosal damages. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Nrf2-mediated mucoprotective and anti-inflammatory actions of Artemisia extracts led to attenuate stress related mucosal damages.
J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2015 Mar ;56(2):132-42. Epub 2014 Nov 28. PMID: 25759519
The aim of this study was to compare biological actions between isopropanol and ethanol extracts of Artemisia including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective actions. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and confocal microscopy on lipopolysaccharide-induced RGM1 cells, cytoprotection effects evaluated by detecting heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), Nf-E2 related factor2 (Nrf2) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and anti-inflammatory effects investigated by measuring inflammatory mediators. Water immersion restraint stress was imposed to provoke stress related mucosal damages (SRMD) in rats. Isopropanol extracts of Artemisia showed the higher DPPH radical scavenging activity and lesser LPS-induced reactive oxygen species productions and increased HO-1 expression through increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 transcription factor compared to ethanol extracts. The increased expression of HSP70 and decreased expression of endothelin-1 were only increased with isopropanol extracts. A concentration-dependent inhibition of LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS even at a rather lower concentration than ethanol extract was achieved with isopropanol extracts. Cytokine protein array revealed Artemisia extracts significantly attenuated the levels of CXCL-1, CXCL-16, and MCP-1. These orchestrated actions led to significant rescue from SRMD. Conclusively, Artemisia extracts imposed significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity against SRMD and isopropanol extracts were superior to ethanol extracts in these beneficiary actions of Artemisia.