Ascorbic acid enhances bone parameter expression in human gingival mesenchymal stem cells.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2019 Dec 4 ;33(6). Epub 2019 Dec 4. PMID: 31797649
Ascorbic acid (AS), also known as vitamin C or ascorbate, is an essential dietary nutrient which plays a vital role in biological processes through various different mechanisms, in particular for the biosynthesis of collagen. The aim of the study was to establish the possibility of enhancing the osteogenic differentiation potential by manipulating the cellular micro-environment, through AS supplementation in human gingival mesenchymal stem cells (hGMSCs) at different concentrations, such as 60 and 90μg/mL, for three weeks. Human GMSCs are considered a stem cell population, easily obtainable and displaying a remarkable immunotherapeutic potential and regenerative repair expression. Osteogenic differentiation level induced from AS was assayed by histochemical characterization, using light microscopy through Alizarin red S staining. The transcript levels of Collagen 1A1 (COL1A1), runtrelated transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), bone morphogenetic protein 2/4 (BMP2/4), osteopontin (OPN) and osteonectin (SPARC) were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Protein expression of COL1A1, RUNX2, BMP2/4, OPN, SPARC were studied through Western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Our results demonstrate that AS supports osteogenic differentiation in stem cells from gingiva niche as shown by osteogenic marker upregulation and by de novo production of calcium phosphate deposits as revealed by Alizarin red S staining. In summary, the results of the current study provide evidence that hGMSCs undergo osteogenic differentiation with AS treatment, for that reason AS could be a promising candidate for the prevention and healing of bone-related diseases.