Antioxidant effect of ascorbic acid against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and P-glycoprotein expression in rats.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2021 Jul 29 ;909:174395. Epub 2021 Jul 29. PMID: 34332922
Cisplatin (CDDP) is a highly potent anticancer drug that is widely used in the treatment of several cancers. CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN) is one of the most significant adverse effects, and oxidative stress is thought to be one of the mechanisms underlying CIN. Although there are some studies available on the variability in transporter expression in the kidney after a single CDDP dose, none have reported the change in renal transporter expression after multiple CDDP dose administrations. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a transporter, is reported to be induced by oxidative stress. Ascorbic acid is a vitamin with antioxidant potential and therefore, may regulate the expression of P-gp transporter and affect CIN. In the present study, our aim was to assess the variability in expression of several renal transporters after multiple CDDP dose administrations and the antioxidant effect of ascorbic acid against transporter expression and CIN. Multiple doses of CDDP affected markers of kidney injury and antioxidants in the kidneys. Also, the expression of P-gp, breast cancer resistance protein, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 was upregulated by CDDP. Using a normal kidney cell line, we demonstrated that ascorbic acid attenuated CDDP-induced cytotoxicity due to its high superoxide scavenging ability. CDDP and ascorbic acid were injected into rats once a week for three weeks, and it was observed that co-administration of ascorbic acid attenuated CIN and regulated antioxidant marker. In addition, ascorbic acid reduced P-gp expression, which was upregulated by CDDP. In conclusion, ascorbic acid may attenuate CIN and reverse P-gp-mediated changes in drug pharmacokinetics.