Asiatic acid influences parasitaemia reduction and ameliorates malaria anaemia in P. berghei infected Sprague-Dawley male rats.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Sep 13 ;16:357. Epub 2016 Sep 13. PMID: 27618936
G A Mavondo
BACKGROUND: Current malaria treatment is either"anti-parasitic","anti-infectivity"or both without addressing the pathophysiological derangement (anti-disease aspect) associated with the disease. Asiatic acid is a natural phytochemical with oxidant, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties whose effect on malarial and accompanying pathophysiology are yet to be investigated. Asiatic acid influence in P. berghei-infected Sprague Dawley rats on %parasitaemia and malarial anaemia were investigated.
METHODS: Plasmodium berghei-infected rats (90-120 g) were orally administered with Asiatic acid (5, 10, 20 mg/kg) and 30 mg/kg chloroquine as a positive control. Changes in %parasitaemia and haematological parameters in Asiatic acid administered rats were monitored in a 21 day study and compared to controls.
RESULTS: All animals developed stable parasitaemia (15-20 %) by day 7. Asiatic acid doses suppressed parasitaemia, normalised haematological measurements and influenced biophysical characteristics changes. Most positive changes were associated with intragastric administration of 10 mg/kg Asiatic acid dose. Peak %parasitaemia in Asiatic acid administration occurred at days 12 with a shorter time course compared to day 9 for chloroquine (30 mg/kg) treatment with a longer time course.
CONCLUSIONS: Oral Asiatic acid administration influenced %parasitaemia suppression, ameliorated malarial anaemia and increased biophysical properties on infected animals. Asiatic acid may be a replacement alternative for chloroquine treatment with concomitant amelioration of malaria pathophysiology. Due to different action time courses, Asiatic acid and chloroquine may be possible candidates in combination therapy.