Association the 25(OH) Vitamin D status with upper respiratory tract infections morbidity in water sports elite athletes.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2019 May 2. Epub 2019 May 2. PMID: 31062952
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to determine seasonal changes of total serum 25(OH) vitamin D (VD) concentration and its influence on upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) morbidity among water sports elite athletes.
METHODS: The study was planned as a prospective, non-interventional, observational study. Study participants included 40 elite athletes and 30 control individuals. Serum levels of 25(OH) VD and TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-6 were detected by ELISA technique. Frequency of acute URTI in participants was determined by medical cards and self-reported questionnaire during the year.
RESULTS: VD deficiency/insufficiency dominated in both groups of elite athletes, especially in synchronized swimmers (100%) in comparison with the control individuals (63.3%) (P≤0.05). Prevalence of VD deficiency/insufficiency depends on the season, but independently on the season the highest values were observed among athletes. VD sufficiency was detected in 30% and 13.3% of the control individuals in August and February and only in 10% of swimmers in August. More than3 episodes of URTI were detected only in the elite athletes in winter-spring. The elevation of TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6 and decrease of IFN-γ levels were detected in all athletes, but they were more expressed in swimmers.
CONCLUSIONS: VD insufficiency is quite pronounced among elite athletes engaged in synchronized swimming and swimmers. It is accompanied with a decrease of IFN-γ, increase of TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-6 level, and elevation of URTI morbidity. Seasonal monitoring and correction of the VD level for normalization of cytokine profile and decrease of URTI morbidity is definitely advised.