Association between prenatal exposure to ambient particulate matter and risk of hypospadias in offspring: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Environ Res. 2021 Jan ;192:110190. Epub 2020 Sep 11. PMID: 32919959
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies on whether prenatal exposure to PM, PM, and PMincreases the risk of hypospadias are limited and the results are inconsistent.
OBJECTIVES: We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate these associations.
METHODS: Relevant studies were identified by searching the PubMed and Embase databases up to the end of February 2020. Observational studies that investigated the relationships between prenatal exposure to PM, PM, and PMand the risk of hypospadias in offspring were eligible for the review. The risk of bias was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Random-effects models were used to estimate pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations.
RESULTS: Nine studies (two cohort and seven case-control studies) with a total of 2806 hypospadias cases were included. Eight studies were at low risk of bias and only one study was at high risk of bias. Five studies reported the association between per interquartile range increase in PMexposure within the first trimester and the risk of hypospadias. The pooled RR was 1.17 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.36). Two studies reported the per interquartile range increase in PMexposure during 1 month before pregnancy associated with the risk of hypospadias, with a pooled RR of 1.25 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.51). No association was observed between PMand PMexposure during pregnancy and the risk of hypospadias in offspring.
CONCLUSION: This study suggested a modest association between prenatal PMexposure during 1 month before pregnancy or within the first trimester and the risk of hypospadias in offspring. Further large-scale cohort studies are required to verify this association.