Astaxanthin exerts different anti-inflammatory effects in female and male brains. - GreenMedInfo Summary
The effect of astaxanthin on the aging rat brain: gender-related differences in modulating inflammation.
J Sci Food Agric. 2016 Jan 30 ;96(2):615-8. Epub 2015 Feb 25. PMID: 25678261
BACKGROUND: Astaxanthin (Ax) is a ketocarotenoid of the xanthophyll family with activities such as antioxidation, preservation of the integrity of cell membranes and protection of the redox state and functional integrity of mitochondria. The aim of this study was to investigate potential gender-related differences in the effect of Ax on the aging rat brain.
RESULTS: In females, interleukin 1 beta (IL1β) was significantly lower in treated rats in both cerebral areas, and in the cerebellum, treated animals also had significantly higher IL10. In males, no differences were found in the cerebellum, but in the hippocampus, IL1β and IL10 were significantly higher in treated rats.
CONCLUSION: These are the first results to show gender-related differences in the effect of Ax on the aging brain, emphasizing the necessity to carefully analyze female and male peculiarities when the anti-aging potentialities of this ketocarotenoid are evaluated. The observations lead to the hypothesis that Ax exerts different anti-inflammatory effects in female and male brains.