Chronic Infusion of Astaxanthin Into Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus Modulates Cytokines and Attenuates the Renin-Angiotensin System in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2021 Feb 1 ;77(2):170-181. PMID: 33538532
Oxidative stress, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and inflammation are some of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of this study is to examine the protective effect of the chronic administration of astaxanthin, which is extracted from the shell of crabs and shrimps, into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Animals were randomly assigned to 2 groups and treated with bilateral PVN infusion of astaxanthin or vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid) through osmotic minipumps (Alzet Osmotic Pumps, Model 2004, 0.25μL/h) for 4 weeks. Spontaneously hypertensive rats had higher mean arterial pressure and plasma level of norepinephrine and proinflammatory cytokine; higher PVN levels of reactive oxygen species, NOX2, NOX4, IL-1β, IL-6, ACE, and AT1-R; and lower PVN levels of IL-10 and Cu/Zn SOD, Mn SOD, ACE2, and Mas receptors than Wistar-Kyoto rats. Our data showed that chronic administration of astaxanthin into PVN attenuated the overexpression of reactive oxygen species, NOX2, NOX4, inflammatory cytokines, and components of RAS within the PVN and suppressed hypertension. The present results revealed that astaxanthin played a role in the brain. Our findings demonstrated that astaxanthin had protective effect on hypertension by improving the balance between inflammatory cytokines and components of RAS.