Astaxanthin has distinct biological effects to prevent the photo-aging of the skin. - GreenMedInfo Summary
The Xanthophyll Carotenoid Astaxanthin has Distinct Biological Effects to Prevent the Photo-aging of the Skin Even by its Post-irradiation Treatment.
Photochem Photobiol. 2018 Oct 19. Epub 2018 Oct 19. PMID: 30338860
Exposure of human skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes significant damage to that tissue. The effects of UV on the skin mainly include acute inflammation (erythema/edema) and abnormal keratinization wherein prostaglandin E(produced by cyclooxygenase-2), interleukin-8 and transglutaminase 1 (a major regulatory factor of keratinization), play pivotal roles. Later phases of UV-induced skin reactions include hyperpigmentation, wrinkle formation and carcinogenesis, the former two being associated with the UVB-induced production and/or secretion of endothelin-1, stem cell factor and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulatory factor by keratinocytes in the epidermis. Those paracrine factors then stimulate expression of the critical melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase by melanocytes in the epidermis and increase expression of neprilysin, an enzyme that degrades elastin, by fibroblasts in the dermis. This review summarizes the biological effects of the xanthophyll carotenoid astaxanthin, which prevents UV-induced cutaneous inflammation, abnormal keratinization and wrinkling as well as pigmentation of the skin even by its post-irradiation treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.