Astaxanthin-Loaded Stealth Lipid Nanoparticles (AST-SSLN) as Potential Carriers for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: Formulation Development and Optimization.
Nanomaterials (Basel). 2021 Feb 3 ;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 3. PMID: 33546352
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with marked oxidative stress at the level of the brain. Recent studies indicate that increasing the antioxidant capacity could represent a very promising therapeutic strategy for AD treatment. Astaxanthin (AST), a powerful natural antioxidant, could be a good candidate for AD treatment, although its use in clinical practice is compromised by its high instability. In order to overcome this limit, our attention focused on the development of innovative AST-loaded stealth lipid nanoparticles (AST-SSLNs) able to improve AST bioavailability in the brain. AST-SSLNs prepared by solvent-diffusion technique showed technological parameters suitable for parenteral administration (<200 nm). Formulated nanosystems were characterized by calorimetric studies, while their toxicological profile was evaluated by the MTT assay on the stem cell line OECs (Olfactory Ensheathing Cells). Furthemore, the protective effect of the nanocarriers was assessed by a long-term stability study and a UV stability assay confirming that the lipid shell of the nanocarriers was able to preserve AST concentration in the formulation. SSLNs were also capable of preserving AST's antioxidant capacity as demonstrated in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. In conclusion, these preliminary studies outline that SSLNs could be regarded as promising carriers for systemic administration of compounds such as AST aimed at AD treatment.