Astaxanthin prevents changes in the activities of thioredoxin reductase and paraoxonase in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.
J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2012 Jul ;51(1):42-9. Epub 2012 Jun 8. PMID: 22798712
Graduate Program in Biological Sciences/Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Health Basic Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
This study explored the effects of the antioxidant astaxanthin on paraoxonase and thioredoxin reductase activities as well as on other oxidative stress parameters and on the lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Rabbits were fed a standard or a hypercholesterolemic diet alone or supplemented with 50, 100 and 500 mg/100 g of astaxanthin for 60 days. Antioxidant enzymes activities, lipid profile and oxidative stress markers were evaluated in the serum. The hypercholesterolemic diet increased lipids, including unsaturated fatty acids level, whereas it decreased saturated fatty acids level. These changes were accompanied by increased levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and oxidized low-density lipoprotein antibodies, as well as lipid and protein oxidation. Astaxanthin (100 and 500 mg/100 g) prevented hypercholesterolemia-induced protein oxidation, whereas 500 mg/100 g of astaxanthin decreased protein oxidation per se. The activities of superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase were enhanced, whereas paraoxonase activity was inhibited in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. All astaxanthin doses prevented changes in thioredoxin reductase and paraoxonase activities. This effect was not related to a direct effect of astaxanthin on these enzymes, because in vitro astaxanthin enhanced thioredoxin reductase and had no effect on paraoxonase activity. Astaxanthin could be helpful in cardiovascular diseases by restoring thioredoxin reductase and paraoxonase activities.