Astaxanthin protects against alcohol-induced cortical spreading depression in rats. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Dose-dependent effects of astaxanthin on cortical spreading depression in chronically ethanol-treated adult rats.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008 Aug;32(8):1417-21. Epub 2008 Jun 6. PMID: 18540920
Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE, Brazil.
BACKGROUND: The consumption of alcoholic drinks is a frequent drug-abuse situation, which is associated to a wide variety of pathological disturbances affecting several organs, including the brain. We have previously shown in the developing rat brain that ethanol intake facilitates the propagation of cortical spreading depression (CSD), an excitability-related neural phenomenon present in several animal species. This electrophysiological effect was attenuated by a shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) carotenoids extract. Here we investigated the effects of pure astaxanthin, the main carotenoid found in shrimp, on CSD.
METHODS: Adult Wistar rats were treated per gavage, during 18 days, with 2.5, 10 or 90 microg/kg/d astaxanthin dissolved in ethanol (3 g/kg) and CSD was recorded on the cortical surface 1 to 3 days thereafter. Four groups, treated respectively with ethanol, distilled water and soybean oil with- and without astaxanthin were also studied for comparison with the ethanol + astaxanthin groups.
RESULTS: Ethanol-treated rats displayed higher CSD-velocities (mean values, in mm/min, per hour of recording ranging from 4.08 +/- 0.09 to 4.12 +/- 0.16), compared to the distilled water-group (from 3.19 +/- 0.13 to 3.27 +/- 0.06). Addition of astaxanthin to ethanol lead to lower CSD-velocities in a dose-dependent manner, ranging from 3.68 +/- 0.09 to 3.97 +/- 0.22 for the 2.5 microg/kg/d-dose, from 3.29 +/- 0.09 to 3.32 +/- 0.07 for the 10 microg/kg/d-dose, and from 2.89 +/- 0.13 to 2.92 +/- 0.11 for the 90 microg/kg/d-dose. The velocities of the soybean oil groups (with and without astaxanthin) were not statistically different from the 10 microg/kg/d astaxanthin + ethanol and distilled water groups.
CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate the antagonistic effect of astaxanthin against the ethanol-induced facilitation of CSD propagation. Probably carotenoid antioxidant properties are involved in such effects.