Astragaloside IV prevents obesity-associated hypertension. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Astragaloside IV Prevents Obesity-Associated Hypertension by Improving Pro-Inflammatory Reaction and Leptin Resistance.
Mol Cells. 2018 Mar 31 ;41(3):244-255. Epub 2018 Mar 20. PMID: 29562733
Low-grade pro-inflammatory state and leptin resistance are important underlying mechanisms that contribute to obesity-associated hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that Astragaloside IV (As IV), known to counteract obesity and hypertension, could prevent obesity-associated hypertension by inhibiting pro-inflammatory reaction and leptin resistance. High-fat diet (HFD) induced obese rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the HFD control group (HF con group), As IV group, and the As IV +α-bungaratoxin (α-BGT) group (As IV+α-BGT group). As IV (20 mg·Kg·d) was administrated to rats for 6 weeks via daily oral gavage. Body weight and blood pressure were continuously measured, and NE levels in the plasma and renal cortex was evaluated to reflect the sympathetic activity. The expressions of leptin receptor (LepRb) mRNA, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (p-STAT3), phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (p-PI3K), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) mRNA, and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) mRNA, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA and neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA were measured by Western blot or qRT-PCR to evaluate the hypothalamic leptin sensitivity. Additionally, we measured the protein or mRNA levels ofα7nAChR, inhibitor of nuclear factor κB kinase subunit β/ nuclear factor κB (IKKβ/NF-KB) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) in hypothalamus and adipose tissue to reflect the anti-inflammatory effects of As IV through upregulating expression of α7nAChR. We found that As IV prevented body weight gain and adipose accumulation, and also improved metabolic disorders in HFD rats. Furthermore, As IV decreased BP and HR, as well as NE levels in blood and renal tissue. In the hypothalamus, As IV alleviated leptin resistance as evidenced by the increased p-STAT3, LepRb mRNA and POMC mRNA, and decreased p-PI3K, SOCS3 mRNA, and PTP1B mRNA. The effects of As IV on leptin sensitivity were related in part to the up-regulated α7nAchR and suppressed IKKβ/NF-KB signaling and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and adipose tissue, since co-administration of α7nAChR selective antagonist α-BGT could weaken the improved effect of As IV on central leptin resistance. Our study suggested that As IV could efficiently prevent obesity-associated hypertension through inhibiting inflammatory reaction and improving leptin resistance; furthermore, these effects of As IV was partly related to the increased α7nAchR expression.