An ATFpeptide-functionalizedβ-elemene-nanostructured lipid carrier combined with cisplatin for bladder cancer treatment.
Cancer Biol Med. 2020 Aug 15 ;17(3):676-692. PMID: 32944399
In this study, we aimed to develop an amino-terminal fragment (ATF) peptide-targeted liposome carryingβ-elemene (ATF-PEG-Lipo-β-E) for targeted delivery into urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-overexpressing bladder cancer cells combined with cisplatin (DDP) for bladder cancer treatment.The liposomes were prepared by ethanol injection and high-pressure microjet homogenization. The liposomes were characterized, and the drug content, entrapment efficiency, andrelease were studied. The targeting efficiency was investigated using confocal microscopy, ultra-fast liquid chromatography, and an orthotopic bladder cancer model. The effects of ATF-PEG-Lipo-β-E combined with DDP on cell viability and proliferation were evaluated by a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, a colony formation assay, and cell apoptosis and cell cycle analyses. The anticancer effects were evaluated in a KU-19-19 bladder cancer xenograft model.ATF-PEG-Lipo-β-E had small and uniform sizes (˜79 nm), high drug loading capacity (˜5.24 mg/mL), high entrapment efficiency (98.37 ± 0.95%), and exhibited sustained drug release behavior. ATF-PEG-Lipo-β-E had better targeting efficiency and higher cytotoxicity than polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated β-elemene liposomes (PEG-Lipo-β-E). DDP, combined with ATF-PEG-Lipo-β-E, exerted a synergistic effect on cellular apoptosis and cell arrest at the G2/M phase, and these effects were dependent on the caspase-dependent pathway and Cdc25C/Cdc2/cyclin B1 pathways. Furthermore, theantitumor activity showed that the targeted liposomes effectively inhibited the growth of tumors, using the combined strategy.The present study provided an effective strategy for the targeted delivery ofβ-elemene (β-E) to bladder cancer, and a combined strategy for bladder cancer treatment.