Autophagy induced by cardamonin is associated with mTORC1 inhibition in SKOV3 cells. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Autophagy induced by cardamonin is associated with mTORC1 inhibition in SKOV3 cells.
Pharmacol Rep. 2018 Oct ;70(5):908-916. Epub 2018 Apr 17. PMID: 30099297
BACKGROUND: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates energy level to modulate cell proliferation and autophagy. Cardamonin exhibits anti-proliferative activity through inhibiting mTOR. In this study, the effect of cardamonin on autophagy and its mechanism on mTOR inhibition were investigated.
METHODS: Cell viability and proliferation were measured by MTT assay and BrdU incorporation, respectively. Cell apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry and cell autophagy was detected by electron microscopy and GFP-LC3 fluorescence. The mechanism of cardamonin on mTORC1 inhibition was investigated by Raptor siRNA and Raptor over-expression.
RESULTS: The cell viability and proliferation were inhibited by cardamonin. The autophagosomes and the protein level of LC3-II were increased by cardamonin. Cell apoptosis and the levels of cleaved PARP and Caspase-3 were increased by cardamonin. Cardamonin inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR and ribosome S6 protein kinase 1 (S6K1) as well as the protein level of regulatory associated protein of mTOR (Raptor). However, cardamonin had no effect on the component of mTORC2 and its downstream substrate Akt. The inhibitory effect of cardamonin on the phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 was eliminated by Raptor knockdown with siRNA, whereas this effect of cardamonin was stronger than that of rapamycin and AZD8055 in Raptor over-expression cells. Cell viability was inhibited by cardamonin in both Raptor knockdown and Raptor over-expression cells, which was consistent with the inhibitory effect of cardamonin on mTOR.
CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated that the autophagy induced by cardamonin was associated with mTORC1 inhibition through decreasing the protein level of Raptor in SKOV3 cells.