Neuroprotective Effects of Baicalein, Wogonin, and Oroxylin A on Amyloid Beta-Induced Toxicity via NF-κB/MAPK Pathway Modulation.
Molecules. 2020 Nov 2 ;25(21). Epub 2020 Nov 2. PMID: 33147823
Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, one of the most important pathogenic traits of Alzheimer's disease (AD), invokes a cascade of oxidative damage and eventually leads to neuronal death. In the present study, baicalein, wogonin, and oroxylin A, main active flavones in, were evaluated for their neuroprotective effects against Aβ-stimulated damage. All tested compounds decreased Aβ-induced ROS generation and cell cycle arrest. In particular, baicalein exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity. In addition, these compounds suppressed apoptosis by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction such as loss of membrane potential, Caaccumulation and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Furthermore, all tested flavones inhibited the expression of iNOS and COX-2, which resulted in suppressing inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, NO, and PGE. Noticeably, all compounds exhibited the anti-inflammatory effects through downregulating NF-κB/MAPK pathway. Especially, oroxylin A was effective against both p65 and IκBα, while wogonin and baicalein were suppressed phospho-p65 and phospho-IκBα, respectively. Taken together, baicalein, wogonin, and oroxylin A can effectively relieve Aβ-stimulated neuronal apoptosis and inflammation in PC12 cells via downregulating NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway.