Balanced deep-sea water increased mitochondrial biogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Magnesium and calcium-enriched deep-sea water promotes mitochondrial biogenesis by AMPK-activated signals pathway in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 Oct ;83:477-484. Epub 2016 Jul 18. PMID: 27434863
Byung Geun Ha
Recent studies showed that deficiencies of essential minerals including Mg, Ca, and K, and trace minerals including Se, Zn, and V, have implications for the development, prevention, and treatment of several chronic diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Our previous studies revealed that balanced deep-sea water (BDSW), which is composed of desalinated water enriched with Mg and Ca, has potential as a treatment for diabetes and obesity. In this study, to determine whether BDSW regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and function, we investigated its effects on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, mitochondrial enzyme activity, expression of key transcription factors and mitochondria-specific genes, phosphorylation of signaling molecules associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. BDSW increased mitochondrial biogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that BDSW enhances expression of PGC1-α, NRF1, and TFAM genes. Upregulation of these genes was supported by increased mitochondria staining, CytC oxidase activity, and AMPK phosphorylation. The stimulatory effect of BDSW on mitochondrial biogenesis and function suggests a novel mechanism for BDSW-induced anti-diabetic and anti-obesityaction.