Effects of ethanol and water extracts of propolis (bee glue) on acute inflammatory animal models.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Sep 14;100(3):276-83. PMID: 15899563
The anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol (EEP) and water (WSD) extracts in ICR mice and Wistar rats were analyzed. Both WSD and EEP exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effects in animal models with respect to thoracic capillary vessel leakage in mice, carrageenan-induced oedema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy, acute lung damage in rats. The mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects probably involve decreasing prostaglandin-E(2) (PGE(2)) and nitric oxide (NO) levels. In rats with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritis, propolis extracts significantly inhibited the increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in inflamed tissues, but had no significant effect on levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). The results are consistent with the interpretation that EEP and WSD may exert these effects by inhibiting the activation and differentiation of mononuclear macrophages.