Beneficial effect of betulinic acid on hyperglycemia via suppression of hepatic glucose production.
J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Jan 15 ;62(2):434-42. Epub 2013 Dec 30. PMID: 24354358
Soo Jung Kim
The inhibitory effect of betulinic acid (BA) on hepatic glucose production was examined in HepG2 cells and high fat diet (HFD)-fed ICR mice. BA significantly inhibited the hepatic glucose production (HGP) and gene expression levels of PGC-1α, PEPCK, and G6Pase. BA activated AMPK and suppressed the expression level of phosphorylated CREB. These effects were all abolished in the presence of compound C (an AMPK inhibitor). Moreover, inhibition of AMPK by overexpression of dominant negative AMPK prevented BA from suppression of HGP, indicating that the inhibitory effect of BA on HGP is AMPK-dependent. In addition, BA markedly phosphorylated CAMKK, and phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC, and suppression of HGP were all reversed in the presence of STO-609 (a CAMKK inhibitor), suggesting that CAMKK is an upstream kinase for AMPK. In an animal study, HFD-fed ICR mice were orally administered with 5 or 10 mg of BA per kg (B5 and B10) for three weeks. Plasma glucose, triglyceride, and the insulin resistance index of the B10 group were decreased by 34%, 59%, and 38%, respectively. In a pyruvate tolerance test, pyruvate-induced glucoseexcursion was decreased by 27% when mice were pretreated with 10 mg/kg of BA. In summary, BA effectively ameliorates hyperglycemia through inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis via modulating the CAMKK-AMPK-CREB signaling pathway.