Beneficial impact of epigallocatechingallate on LDL-C through PCSK9/LDLR pathway by blocking HNF1α and activating FoxO3a.
J Transl Med. 2020 May 12 ;18(1):195. Epub 2020 May 12. PMID: 32398139
BACKGROUND: Green tea drinking has been proven to lower lipid and exert cardiovascular protection, while the potential mechanism has not been fully determined. This study was to investigate whether the beneficial impact of epigallocatechingallate (EGCG), a type of catechin in green tea on lipids is associated with proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) pathways.
METHODS: We studied the effects and underlying molecular mechanism of EGCG or green tea on regulating cholesterol from human, animal and in vitro.
RESULTS: In the age- and gender-matched case control observation, we found that individuals with frequent tea consumption (n = 224) had the lower plasma PCSK9 and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels compared with ones without tea consumption (n = 224, p < 0.05). In the high fat diet (HFD) fed rats, EGCG administration significantly lowered circulating PCSK9 concentration and liver PCSK9 expression, along with up-regulated LDL receptor (LDLR) expression but decreased level of LDL-C. In hepatic cell study, similar results were obtained regarding theimpact of EGCG on LDLR and PCSK9 expression. The assay transposase-accessible chromatic with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) and subsequent results suggested that two transcription factors, hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α (HNF-1α) and forkhead box class O (FoxO) 3a involved in inhibitory action of EGCG on PCSK9 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates that EGCG suppresses PCSK9 production by promoting nuclear FoxO3a, and reducing nuclear HNF1α, resulting in up-regulated LDLR expression and LDL uptake in hepatocytes. Thereby inhibiting liver and circulating PCSK9 levels, and ultimately lowering LDL-C levels.