Berberine facilitates angiogenesis against ischemic stroke. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Berberine Facilitates Angiogenesis Against Ischemic Stroke Through Modulating Microglial Polarization via AMPK Signaling.
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24. PMID: 31020571
Evidence suggests that microglia/macrophages can change their phenotype to M1 or M2 and participate in tissue damage or repair. Berberine (BBR) has shown promise in experimental stroke models, but its effects on microglial polarization and long-term recovery after stroke are elusive. Here, we investigated the effects of BBR on angiogenesis and microglial polarization through AMPK signaling after stroke. In the present study, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), intragastrically administrated with BBR at 50 mg/kg/day. Neo-angiogenesis was observed byGa-NODAGA-RGD micro-PET/CT and immunohistochemistry. Immunofluorescent staining further exhibited an increase of M2 microglia and a reduction of M1 microglia at 14 days after stroke. In vitro studies, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 microglial cells were used to confirm the AMPK activation effect of BBR. RT-PCR, Flow cytometry, and ELISA all demonstrated that BBR could inhibit M1 polarization and promote M2 polarization. Furthermore, treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with conditioned media collected from BBR-treated BV2 cells promoted angiogenesis. All effects stated above were reversed by AMPK inhibitor (Compound C) and AMPK siRNA. In conclusion, BBR treatment improves functional recovery and promotes angiogenesis following tMCAO via AMPK-dependent microglial M2 polarization.