Berberine suppresses tumorigenicity of triple negative breast cancer cells. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Berberine Suppresses Cell Motility Through Downregulation of TGF-β1 in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018 Jan 31 ;45(2):795-807. Epub 2018 Jan 31. PMID: 29414799
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Transforming growth factor-beta proteins (TGF-βs) are multifunctional growth factors and powerful modulators of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in a variety of cancer types including breast and lung cancer cells. Here, we demonstrated the inhibitory effect of berberine (BBR) on tumor growth and metastasis of triple negative breastcancer (TNBC) cells via suppression of TGF-β1 expression.
METHODS: The levels of mRNA expression were analyzed by real-time PCR. The levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TGF-β1 protein expression were analyzed by zymography and confocal microscopy, respectively. Cell migration was analyzed by wound healing assay. Tumorigenicity of TNBC cells such as tumor growth and metastasis was analyzed using xenograft models.
RESULTS: In a clinical data set, aberrant TGF-β1 expression was associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. Our in vitro results using TNBC cells showed that the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and the capacity for cell migration were increased by TGF-β1 treatment. In contrast, basal levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were suppressed by a specific TGF-β receptor I inhibitor, SB431542. In addition, TGF-β1-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and cell migration were decreased by SB431542. Interestingly, we showed for the first time that BBR decreased the level of TGF-β1, but not TGF-β2, in TNBC cells. Furthermore, BBR significantly decreased the level of MMP-2 expression as well as the capacity for cell migration in TNBC cells. Finally, we examined the effect of BBR on in vivo tumor growth and lung metastasis in MDA-MB231 and 4T1 breast cancer xenograft models and showed that both were significantly decreased following BBR treatment.
CONCLUSION: BBR suppresses tumorigenicity of TNBC cells through inhibition of TGF-β1 expression. Therefore, we demonstrate that BBR could be a promising drug for treatment of TNBC.