Betulinic acid improves insulin sensitivity, hyperglycemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome rats via PI3K/Akt pathways.
Arch Physiol Biochem. 2018 Oct 5:1-9. Epub 2018 Oct 5. PMID: 30288995
R A Ajala-Lawal
This study investigated the influence of betulinic acid on high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Oral administration of betulinic acid significantly reversed high-fructose diet-mediated increase in body mass index and blood glucose. Furthermore, betulinic acid restored high-fructose diet-mediated alterations in metabolic hormones (insulin, leptin and adiponectin). Betulinic acid-mediated upregulation of protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphoinositde-3 kinase (PI3K) anulled high-fructose diet mediated depletion. Also, elevated tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and -8 were significantly lowered. Administration of betulinic acid restored high-fructose diet-mediated increase in the levels of lipid profile parameters and indices of atherosclerosis, cardiac and cardiovascular diseases. High-fructose diet-mediated decrease in activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and increase in oxidative stress biomarkers (reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation products, protein oxidation and fragmented DNA) were significantly restored by the phenolic acids. Conclusively, betulinic acid improves insulin sensitivity, elevated blood glucose, inflammation and dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome through the PI#Kand Akt pathways .