Betulinic acid induces apoptosis and ultrastructural changes in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.
Ultrastruct Pathol. 2018 Jan-Feb;42(1):49-54. Epub 2017 Dec 1. PMID: 29192840
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of betulinic acid (BA) on triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and observe the ultrastructural changes. The concentration of BA required to induce apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells has been previously reported. In this study, a cell counting kit-8 proliferation assay was used to measure cell viability and the apoptosis rate. Western blotting was performed to observe the protein expression levels of Bcl-2. Cell morphology and changes in cell density were observed by microscopy. Electron microscopy revealed pyknotic nuclei as well as vacuoles. Collectively, our results showed the morphological mechanisms by which BA impairs the ultrastructure of MDA-MB-231 cells.