Bioactive components from garlic on brain resiliency against neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.
Exp Ther Med. 2020 Feb ;19(2):1554-1559. Epub 2019 Dec 27. PMID: 32010338
Garlic () has been widely used for culinary and medicinal purposes. Aged garlic extract (AGE) and sulfur-containing compounds, including S-allylcysteine (SAC) are well documented botanical active components of garlic. AGE is prepared by the prolonged extraction of fresh garlic with aqueous ethanol and is considered a nutritional supplement with potential to promote human health. SAC is a water-soluble organosulfur compound and the most abundant component of AGE. Studies have demonstrated that both AGE and SAC can exert neuroprotective effects against neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Another bioactive component in AGE is-α-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-arginine (FruArg) although less is known about the metabolic activity of this compound. The main aim of this review was to provide an undated overview of the neuroprotective perspectives of these active garlic components (AGE, SAC and FruArg). Of interest, our studies and those of others indicate that both AGE and FruArg are involved in the regulation of gene transcription and protein expression. AGE has been shown to reverse 67% of the transcriptome alteration induced by endotoxins-lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and FruArg has been shown to account for the protectiveeffects by reversing 55% of genes altered in a cell-based neuroinflammation paradigm stimulated by LPS in murine BV-2 microglial cells. AGE and FruArg can alleviate neuroinflammatory responses through a variety of signaling pathways, such as Toll-like receptor and interleukin (IL)-6 signaling, as well as by upregulating the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated oxidative stress pathways known to promote microglial resiliency against neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. The capability of FruArg to pass through the blood-brain barrier further supports its potential as atherapeutic compound. In summary, these experimental results provide new insight into the understanding of the neuroprotective effects of garlic components in promoting brain resiliency for health benefits.