Biochemical and morphological evaluation of the effects of propolis on cisplatin induced kidney damage in rats.
Biotech Histochem. 2019 Apr ;94(3):204-213. Epub 2018 Dec 4. PMID: 30512970
Cisplatin (CP) is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancer; nephrotoxicity is the most common adverse effect of the drug. We investigated the protective effects of propolis against CP induced kidney injury. Thirty-six male rats were divided into six equal groups: untreated control group, 50 mg/kg/day propolis group, 100 mg/kg/day propolis group, single-dose 7 mg/kg CP group, 7 mg/kg CP + 50 mg/kg/day propolis and 7 mg/kg CP + 100 mg/kg propolis. Rats were sacrificed after 14 days and kidneys were removed for histopathological and biochemical analyses. We used hematoxylin&eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining to evaluate kidney histopathology and we used the TUNEL technique to assess apoptosis. We also measured total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in tissue and blood specimens. Normal morphology was observed in the control, 50 mg/kg/day propolis and 100 mg/kg/day propolis groups by light microscopy. Degeneration of tubule cells, edema and tubule dilation were increased in the CP group compared to the control group. Degeneration of tubule cells and dilation of Bowman's spaces were decreased in the CP + 50 mg/kg/day propolis and CP + 100 mg/kg/day propolis groups compared to the CP group. Tubule dilation decreased significantly in the CP + 100 mg/kg propolis group compared to the CP group. Also, the 7 mg/kg CP group exhibited altered proximal tubule epithelial cells, loss of brush border and thickening of the parietal layer of Bowman's capsule in glomeruli and basal laminae of tubules. A normal brush border was observed in the CP + 50 mg/kg/day propolis and CP + 100 mg/kg/day groups. Serum OSI and MDA levels were increased in the CP group compared to the control group. Serum MDA levelsdecreased significantly in the CP + 50 mg/kg/day propolis and 100 mg/kg CP + propolis groups compared to the CP group. CP caused significant damage to kidney tissue; propolis exhibited dose-dependent prevention of tissue damage.