Bisphenol-A exposure induced neurotoxicity in glutamatergic neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells.
Environ Int. 2019 Apr 3 ;127:324-332. Epub 2019 Apr 3. PMID: 30953815
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a lipophilic, organic, synthetic compound that has been used as an additive in polycarbonate plastics manufacturing since 1957. Studies have shown that BPA interferes with the development and functions of the brain, but little is known about the effects of BPA on human glutamatergic neurons (hGNs) at the molecular and cellular levels. We investigated the impact of chronic exposure to BPA to hGNs derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The results showed that chronic exposure of different concentrations of BPA (0, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 μM) to hGNs for 14 days reduced neurite outgrowth in a concentration-dependent manner. Using presynaptic protein synaptophysin and postsynaptic protein PSD-95 antibodies, immunofluorescence staining and western blotting results indicated that BPA exposure altered the morphology of dendritic spines and increased synaptophysin and PSD-95 expression. Furthermore, BPA exposure at concentrations higher than 1.0 μM resulted in the increase of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) expression and deterioration of dendritic spines. In addition, our results suggested that these BPA mediated neurotoxicity effects were due to an increased production of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) via increased nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), 3-nitrotyrosine expression and Cainflux. These results imply that hESC-based neuronal differentiation is an excellent cellular model to examine BPA-induced neurotoxicity on human neurons at the cellular and molecular level.