Bisphenol A exposure induces increased microglia and microglial related factors in the murine embryonic dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus.
Toxicol Lett. 2018 Mar 1 ;284:113-119. Epub 2017 Dec 14. PMID: 29248573
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used compound in the food packaging industry. Prenatal exposure to BPA induces histological abnormalities in the neocortex and hypothalamus in association with abnormal behaviors. Yet, the molecular and cellular neurodevelopmental toxicological mechanisms of BPA are incompletely characterized on neuroinflammatory-related endopoints. To evaluate the neurodevelopmental effects of BPA exposure in mouse embryos, we examined microglial numbers as well as the expression of microglial-related factors in the E15.5 embryonic brain. BPA-exposed embryos exhibited significant increases in Iba1-immunoreactive microglial numbers in the dorsal telencephalon and the hypothalamus compared to control embryos. Further, the expression levels of microglial markers (Iba1, CD16, iNOS, and CD206), inflammatory factors (TNFα and IL4), signal transducing molecules (Cx3Cr1 and Cx3Cl1), and neurotrophic factor (IGF1) were altered in BPA-exposed embryos. These findings suggest that BPA exposure increases microglial numbers in the brain and alters the neuroinflammatory status at a transcriptional level. Together, these changes may represent a novel target for neurodevelopmental toxicity assessment after BPA exposure.