Bisphenol S alters development of the male mouse mammary gland and sensitizes it to a peripubertal estrogen challenge.
Toxicology. 2019 Jun 12. Epub 2019 Jun 12. PMID: 31201878
Humans are exposed to estrogenic chemicals in food and food packaging, personal care products, and other industrial and consumer goods. Bisphenol A (BPA), a well-studied xenoestrogen, is known to alter development of estrogen-sensitive organs including the brain, reproductive tract, and mammary gland. Bisphenol S (BPS; 4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol), which has a similar chemical structure to BPA, is also used in many consumer products, but its effects on estrogen-sensitive organs in mammals has not been thoroughly examined. Here, we quantified the effects of perinatal exposures to BPS on the male mouse mammary gland. In our first study, pregnant CD-1 mice were orally exposed to BPS (2 or 200 μg/kg/day) starting on pregnancy day 9 through lactation day 20, and male mammary glands were evaluated on embryonic day 16, prior to puberty, and in early adulthood. We observed modest changes in tissue organization in the fetal gland, and significant increases in growth of the gland induced bydevelopmental BPS exposure in adulthood. In our second study, pregnant CD-1 mice were orally exposed to BPS (2, 200 or 2000 μg/kg/day) starting on pregnancy day 9 through lactational day 2. After weaning, the male pups were administered either oil (vehicle) or an estrogen challenge (1 μg ethinyl estradiol/kg/day) for ten days starting prior to puberty. After the 10-day estrogen challenge, we examined hormone-sensitive outcomes including anogenital index (AGI), weight of the seminal vesicles, and morphological parameters of the mammary gland. Although AGI and seminal vesicle weight werenot affected by BPS, we observed dose-specific effects on the response of male mammary glands to the peripubertal estrogen challenge. Because male mammary glands are structurally less developed compared to females, they may provide a simple model tissue to evaluate the effects of putative xenoestrogens.