Bisphenols as environmental triggers of thyroid dysfunction: clues and evidence. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Bisphenols as Environmental Triggers of Thyroid Dysfunction: Clues and Evidence.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Apr 13 ;17(8). Epub 2020 Apr 13. PMID: 32294918
Bisphenols (BPs), and especially bisphenol A (BPA), are known endocrine disruptors (EDCs), capable of interfering with estrogen and androgen activities, as well as being suspected of other health outcomes. Given the crucial role of thyroid hormones and the increasing incidence of thyroid carcinoma in the last few decades, this review analyzes the effects of BPS on the thyroid, considering original research in vitro, in vivo, and in humans published from January 2000 to October 2019. Both in vitro and in vivo studies reported the ability of BPs to disrupt thyroid function through multiple mechanisms. The antagonism with thyroid receptors (TRs), which affects TR-mediated transcriptional activity, the direct action of BPs on gene expression at the thyroid and the pituitary level, the competitive binding with thyroid transport proteins, and the induction of toxicity in several cell lines are likely the main mechanisms leading to thyroid dysfunction. In humans, results are more contradictory, though some evidence suggests the potential of BPs in increasing the risk of thyroid nodules. A standardized methodology in toxicological studies and prospective epidemiological studies with individual exposure assessments are warranted to evaluate the pathophysiology resulting in the damage and to establish the temporal relationship between markers of exposure and long-term effects.