(1)H NMR-based metabolic study reveals the improvements of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) on energy metabolism in diet-induced obese mouse.
Pharm Biol. 2016 Aug 19:1-10. Epub 2016 Aug 19. PMID: 27538854
CONTEXT: Obesity can be ameliorated by some natural products such as polyphenol, flavones and saponin. As a typical medicinal plant, Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) (bitter melon, BM) contains these natural chemicals and reduces diet-induced obesity in mice.
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the metabolic effects of dietary BM supplement, investigates a global metabolic profile and determines associated perturbations in metabolic pathways.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with low-fat diet (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD supplemented with 5% BM based on 37.6 g/kg body weight in average for 12 weeks, respectively. Then energy metabolism was quantified using PhenoMaster/LabMaster. The spectroscopy of urine was acquired by nuclear magnetic resonance and latent biomarkers were identified. Pattern recognition analysis was used to discriminate associated metabolic profiles.
RESULTS: Dietary BM supplement reduced body weight gain (-0.15-fold, p < 0.01) and blood glucose levels (-0.19-fold, p < 0.01) in HFD-fed mice. Meanwhile, the levels of energy metabolism were enhanced (0.08-0.11-fold, p < 0.01). According to pattern recognition analysis, dietary BM supplement changed metabolic profiles in HFD-fed mice and the modified profiles were similar to those in LFD-fed mice. Finally, the mapping of metabolic pathways showed that dietary BM supplement primarily affected glucose metabolism-associated pathways.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results indicated that BM improves weight loss in diet-induced obesity and elevate energy expenditure in HFD-fed mice. The pattern recognition with metabolic study may be used as a noninvasive detection method to assess the effects of dietary BM supplement on mouse energy metabolism.